How to Proceed
Blood is withdrawn, spun in a centrifuge for 10 minutes at 200 RCG and separated into its various components. The bottom layer contains most of the red blood cells, while the top layer consists mostly of plasma and platelets. This top layer is the PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma) which is taken out and the Red Blood Cells discarded.
How PhotoActivation Works
As a concentrated source of platelets, PRP contains several different growth factors and other cytokines that accelerate and enhance the healing of bone and soft tissue. The PRP is then activated under AdiLight-2 for 10 minutes since this has been shown to significantly reduce pain and further accelerate healing.
While PRP treatment (without photoactivation) is fast becoming a popular new treatment for muscular and skeletal injuries, it is also known to cause aggravated pain in the affected area for 2-10 days after injection.
AdiStem Pty. Ltd. has researched the effect of different monochromatic light intensities and frequencies in the colored spectrum on various human and animal cell populations such as mesenchyme stem cells and white blood cells. The company has found that low-level light photoactivation or photomodulation can be utilized for significant benefit in stimulating the proliferation, differentiation, and inhibition/induction release of growth factors/cytokines of cells from any living organism.
Healing is Accelerated and Post-Treatment Pain for PRP Patients Reduced:
Once the PRP is prepared, it is activated briefly using AdiLight-2 before being injected back into the affected area. In most cases, photoactivation using AdiLight-2 increases Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RA) which decreases the pain and inflammation associated with PRP injections. In other cases, the duration of any pain is significantly reduced.
Benefits to Doctors Using PhotoActivation:
More Information on PRP PhotoActivation
What are Platelets?
Platelets contain multiple growth factors. These proteins are specifically involved in the regeneration of injured tissue.
Studies suggest that platelets contain an abundance of growth factors and cytokines that can affect inflammation, postoperative blood loss, infection, osteogenesis, wounds, muscle tear and soft tissue healing. Research now shows that platelets also release many bioactive proteins responsible for attracting macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts that not only promote removal of degenerated and necrotic tissue, but also enhance tissue regeneration and healing. Recently, however, there has been emerging literature on the beneficial effects of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) for acute and chronic non-healing tendon injuries including lateral epicondylosis, plantar fasciopathy and cartilage degeneration, osteoarthritis of the knee, shoulder, hip and spine, tennis elbow, ankle and ligament sprains.
Some of these growth factors are:
|Platelet Derived||These play a significant role in blood vessel formation (angiogenesis), and the growth of blood vessels from already-existing blood vessel tissue. PDGF is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including smooth muscle cells and glial cells.|
|Transforming||They are proteins that control proliferation, cellular differentiation and other functions in most cells. They play a role in immunity, cancer, heart disease and diabetes.|
|Fibroblast||These are involved in angiogenesis, wound healing and embryonic development.|
|Vascular endothelial||This is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. It is part of the system that restores the oxygen supply to tissues when blood circulation is inadequate.|
|Epidermal||This results in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival.|
|Interleukin-8||This chemokine is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. The chemokine is secreted by several cell types. It functions as a chemo-attractant and is also a potent angiogenic factor.|
|Insulin-Like (IGF-1)||This is one of the most potent natural activators of the AKT signaling pathway, a stimulator of cell growth and proliferation and a potent inhibitor of programmed cell death.|
As PRP is taken from a patient’s own blood, there is no risk of disease transmission or allergic reaction. It is entirely natural.
What is PhotoActivation?
The effect of different monochromatic light intensities and frequencies has now been fully researched and tested by AdiStem Pty. Ltd. AdiLight-2 is commercially available and carries a CE mark from the European Union, as well as TGA Certification.
The wavelength, or bandwidth of wavelengths, is one of the critical factors in selective photomodulation. Pulsed or continuous exposure, duration and frequency of pulses (and dark ‘off’ period) and energy are also factors as well as the presence, absence or deficiency of any or all cofactors, enzymes, catalysts, or other building blocks of the process being photomodulated. Different parameters with the same wavelength may have very diverse and even opposite effects. When different parameters of photomodulation are performed simultaneously, different effects may be produced. When different parameters are used serially or sequentially, the effects are also different.
The selection of wavelength photomodulation is critical as is the bandwidth selected as there may be a very narrow bandwidth for some applications — in essence these are biologically active spectral intervals. Generally the photomodulation will target flavins, cytochromes, iron-sulfur complexes, quinines, heme, enzymes, and other transition metal ligand bond structures but is not limited to these.
Using the patient’s own blood, the specially prepared PRP platelets are taken and re-injected into the same patient’s affected area. The whole simple process is performed in the physician’s clinic on the same day — a ‘point of service’ treatment. These platelets release growth factors that lead to accelerated tissue healing. By using the concentration of platelets, the activated growth factors promote temporary relief and stop inflammation — creating a painless and faster healing treatment.
Note: PRP also signals the body to call in stem cells to repair any area of injury. Stem cells also encourage damaged cells to repair themselves.
The Graph below is taken from Dr. Lewis’ Clinical Study in Australia
on 82 Patients Treated with PhotoActivated PRP.
Comments on the Use of PRP for Martial Arts Injuries by Dr. Peter Lewis (Ringside Physician)
“After drawing blood to obtain 5mL of PRP, I centrifuge for 10 minutes. I extract the top layer to obtain the PRP fraction, and then activate using AdiLight-2 for 10 minutes. This has been shown to significantly reduce pain for the patient. I inject activated PRP into the area of injury with up to 3 treatments about one week apart. My nurses do most of the work and the whole process per patient takes about 45 minutes. The equipment I require includes a centrifuge, AdiLight-2, 9mL vaccuettes with ACD-A, acid-citrate-dextrose anti-coagulant (ACD-A) and a retort stand. I use PRP for tendon and ligament injuries, degenerative knees, osteoarthritis, bursitis and muscle tears. During a 100-participant trial in the Netherlands in 2010 on elbow tendinopathy, it was shown clearly that the cortisone group improved initially and then declined. The group using PRP progressively improved. I now use PRP for cartilage which stimulates chondrocyte function, decreases synovial membrane hyperplasia and hemorrhage, and increases glycosaminoglycan, chondrocyte synthesis and cartilage matrix. PRP utilizes parts of the inflammatory process to increase the speed and quality of tissue healing and the platelets contain numerous growth factors.”
“I have found that the growth factors also cause stem cells to proliferate, migrate and differentiate and so I now use Stromal Vascular Fraction Stem Cells in addition to PRP.”
Dr. Peter Lewis is a sports physician with a special interest in martial arts injuries. He works at Re-Creation Medical Centre and Malvern Health & Fitness Australia. He has been ringside physician for approximately 15,000 bouts and has looked after boxing, kickboxing, karate, and taekwondo fights. Dr. Lewis has been involved in officiating at all levels of martial arts including as a judge referee, ringside doctor, trainer and corner-man, ring announcer and rules co-coordinator. He has officiated at some of the most important fights in over 30 cities around the world. Peter has trained with world champions and internationally recognised instructors in many countries. Dr. Lewis has extensive experience in treating physical trauma and has lectured internationally on martial arts injuries. In addition to his remarks above on PRP, Dr. Lewis also comments: “ I have had really good results using photoactivated PRP on tendons and some great results injecting into old arthritic knees.”
PhotoActivated Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapy for a Traumatic Knee Chondral Lesion
Julien Freitag, Adele Barnard, Andrew Rotstein
|To evaluate the effect of combining photoactivation therapy with platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of a traumatic chondral lesion of the knee. A 38-year-old man presented with left-knee pain and swelling following a basketball injury. MRI demonstrated a full-thickness lateral tibial plateau chondral flap with subchondral cyst formation and marrow oedema. The patient underwent a course of photoactivated platelet-rich plasma (PAPRP) injections. Patient outcome measures included the numerical pain rating scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index 3.0 (WOMAC). Following treatment, the patient reported improvement in both pain and function as measured by the numerical pain-rating scale and WOMAC. MRI showed resolution of subchondral bone marrow bruising/oedema. No complications were noted. In this case report, PAPRP injections demonstrated improvement in all recorded outcome measures. Recognising the limitations of a single case report, the results highlight the need for more formal controlled trials to determine the potential use of PAPRP in the treatment of chondral lesions.|
PhotoActivation was achieved using AdiLight-2.
To obtain this full research paper, please refer to the British Medical Journal website.
Well-known professional athletes who have received PRP treatments:
PRP is now also being used to treat Baby Boomer Arthritis.